What is eSIM?

14 Min Read

The eSIM, short for embedded Subscriber Identity Module, is a reprogrammable digital SIM technology that is integrated directly into a device’s motherboard, enabling mobile devices to connect to a cellular network without the need for a physical SIM card. Developed by the GSM Association in 2012 and standardized in March 2016, eSIMs offer the ability to easily switch between carriers or plans through software, store multiple operator profiles, and simplify carrier switching and enhance international connectivity. This technology is particularly beneficial for devices with limited space, such as smartwatches and IoT devices, providing advantages in terms of design efficiency, energy conservation, and durability. Apple was the first to introduce eSIM integration in smartphones with the iPhone XS series in 2018 and later released the eSIM-only iPhone 14 in the US. Other major tech companies, including Google and Samsung, have also adopted eSIM technology, with Samsung offering 26 eSIM-compatible models by October 2023. With the increasing adoption of eSIM by mobile network operators and virtual network operators, who are exploring cloud-based solutions and device entitlement gateway platforms for deployment, it is estimated that 83% of smartphone shipments will be eSIM-enabled by 2025, indicating a significant shift towards this seamless and energy-efficient technology.

Technical Specification of eSIM technology

Feature Details
Full Name Embedded Subscriber Identity Module
Definition A digital SIM that allows you to activate a cellular plan without the need for a physical SIM card.
Physical Presence Integrated directly into the device’s motherboard,¬† not removable or swappable
Activation Process Remotely provisioned by the carrier, often through a QR code or carrier’s app.
Storage Can store multiple carrier profiles, allowing for easy switching between networks.
Compatibility Supported by a growing number of mobile devices, smartwatches, and IoT devices.
Switching Carriers Can be done without changing a physical SIM; carrier profiles can be swapped digitally.
International Travel Simplifies the process of switching to local carriers while abroad.
Security Encrypted profiles and secure authentication methods similar to traditional SIM cards.
Environmental Impact Reduces plastic waste associated with manufacturing and distributing physical SIM cards.
Industry Adoption Increasingly adopted by smartphone manufacturers, smartwatch makers, and IoT devices.
Industry Standard Governed by the GSMA, which sets the technical and operational guidelines for eSIM technology.


What is the difference between Physical SIM card and eSIM?

Physical SIM cards and eSIMs both store subscriber data to enable mobile connectivity, but they differ in their physical form and functionality. Physical SIM cards are tangible, removable chips that can be transferred between devices, but changing carriers requires manual handling, which can be inconvenient and less secure. On the other hand, eSIMs are integrated into the device’s hardware, allowing for remote management and provisioning of network subscriptions without the need for a physical card. This digital solution simplifies carrier changes, supports multiple profiles on a single device, and offers enhanced security features, making it a popular choice for its convenience, especially for international travelers and in IoT applications where flexibility and ease of use are crucial.

Advantages of eSIM

eSIM technology marks a significant advancement in telecommunications, offering mobile device users unparalleled convenience and flexibility. Below, we will explore the numerous advantages that eSIMs, which are changing the way we connect to our networks and manage our mobile devices.

1. Space Efficiency

By directly integrating into the device’s motherboard, eliminating the need for a physical SIM card slot, eSIM technology significantly improves space efficiency in mobile devices. This results in a more compact design, allowing for thinner devices with additional space for larger batteries or advanced sensors. The technology also enhances device durability by reducing openings that could potentially allow water and dust to enter. By dividing eSIMs into multiple space zones, manufacturers can optimize data storage and security, ensuring that only authorized applications can access specific data. This space-saving innovation not only enhances the appearance and structural integrity of devices but also enables the development of smaller, yet fully connected, gadgets such as smartwatches and IoT devices. This drives the industry towards more innovative and resilient product designs.

2. Durability

Being embedded directly into a device’s motherboard, eSIM technology offers substantial durability advantages over traditional physical SIM cards. Its soldered design protects against physical impact, corrosion, and environmental factors like moisture and dust, reducing the risk of SIM failure and extending device lifespan. This robustness is especially beneficial for devices used in harsh conditions, such as wearables, industrial sensors, and IoT devices, as it ensures consistent connectivity and performance. The integration of eSIMs into the device’s hardware also eliminates the risks associated with physical SIM slots, including damage from insertion and removal or loss of the card, providing a more reliable and stable connection for users.

3. Flexibility for International Travel

To connect to mobile networks while abroad, offering a flexible and convenient method for travelers,  eSIM technology has revolutionized international travel. This digital solution allows for the creation of multiple eSIM profiles, enabling travelers to easily switch between network providers and data plans without the need to physically change SIM cards. This eliminates the hassle of managing multiple physical SIM cards for different countries. Travelers can preload plans from various carriers, select cost-effective options, and manage their plans directly from their device settings. The ability to retain a home mobile number while utilizing local data plans simplifies communication and reduces the necessity of carrying multiple devices. eSIMs also decrease the risk of losing or damaging SIM cards and provide the freedom to instantly switch carriers or plans, ensuring continuous connectivity, reducing roaming fees, and enhancing the overall travel experience.

4. Environmental Benefits

eSIMs integrate SIM functionality directly into devices, eliminating the need for the production, distribution, and disposal of plastic SIM cards, which are estimated to generate approximately 20,000 tons of plastic waste annually. This not only reduces landfill waste and the consumption of finite resources such as oil and water, but also decreases carbon emissions from the physical distribution process. As the industry increasingly adopts eSIMs, the cumulative environmental benefits are expected to increase, underscoring the telecommunications sector’s dedication to waste reduction and sustainability goals.

5. Security

Utilizing advanced features and robust integration, Embedded SIM (eSIM) technology enhances mobile device security. Unlike traditional SIM cards, eSIMs are permanently attached to the device’s motherboard, making it difficult for physical theft or tampering to occur, and reducing the risk of SIM swap scams. eSIMs provide secure boot, encrypted communication, and remote provisioning, which help prevent unauthorized access and enable quick deactivation and reactivation in response to security threats. The ability to remotely manage eSIM profiles without the need for manual transfer of sensitive information reduces the likelihood of interception. Furthermore, eSIMs support advanced encryption and can be reprogrammed to block access in the event of a security breach. Storing multiple SIM profiles on a single device allows for the separation of personal and professional data, enhancing privacy. As eSIM technology continues to advance, it is expected to incorporate even more sophisticated security measures to further enhance the security of mobile communications.

6. Multiple Profiles

Eliminating the need for physical SIM card swaps, eSIM technology allows the storage of multiple profiles on a single device which has revolutionized mobile telecommunications. This advancement allows users to easily switch between carriers or plans, which is particularly beneficial for travelers looking to avoid roaming charges and for those wanting to keep personal and business lines separate on one device. The digital activation of eSIMs offers a more secure and streamlined setup, reducing the risk of SIM theft and simplifying mobile service management for both individuals and organizations. With its ability to manage various mobile plans and networks, eSIM technology provides a flexible, secure, and convenient experience for today’s mobile users.

7. IoT Integration

The incorporation of eSIM technology into the Internet of Things (IoT) significantly improves device connectivity, operational efficiency, and security in various industries, especially in logistics and transportation. eSIMs enable seamless network switching and global deployment without physical SIM cards, ensuring continuous connectivity and the development of smaller IoT devices. Enhanced security is achieved through embedded encryption and secure authentication, safeguarding sensitive data and preventing unauthorized access. Cost savings are realized by reducing deployment costs and enabling the selection of cost-effective connectivity options. Furthermore, eSIMs provide scalability, compatibility with multiple carriers, and the ability to conduct remote updates, simplifying device lifecycle management. These combined benefits of eSIM technology not only enhance the management and monitoring of IoT systems but also open up opportunities for innovative applications in a more interconnected and dynamic digital environment.

8. Future-Proof

Allowing for seamless carrier changes and service updates without the need for physical SIM swaps is done by integrating directly into devices, eSIM technology is an innovative solution that offers advantages over traditional SIM cards. This advancement simplifies connectivity across different networks and countries and complies with new telecommunication standards through its ability for remote updates to meet network and security requirements. The increasing prevalence of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) highlights the importance of eSIMs, as they provide a more efficient and secure connection for various devices such as smartphones, wearables, and industrial sensors. The remote provisioning feature of eSIMs reduces the need for manual intervention, streamlining device management and maintenance. As mobile technology advances, the adaptability and scalability of eSIMs ensure they remain a relevant and flexible solution for both consumers and businesses.

Security and Privacy Concerns regarding eSIM

As a modern alternative to traditional SIM cards, eSIM technology allows users to switch carriers digitally, providing increased convenience and flexibility. However, it also brings about security and privacy concerns, particularly for vulnerable groups such as Rohingya refugees in Malaysia. The digital nature of eSIMs heightens the risk of remote hacking, unauthorized access, and data breaches, as potential vulnerabilities could be exploited to intercept personal information or track users. The centralized management of eSIMs further complicates privacy issues, potentially enabling carriers and third parties to create user profiles. To address these threats, it is crucial to implement strong security measures, such as encryption and secure authentication, and adhere to strict standards like ISO/IEC 27001:2013 and ISO/IEC 27701:2019. The industry must remain vigilant in safeguarding the integrity of eSIM technology through a user-centered design approach that prioritizes the security and privacy of all users, especially those in vulnerable situations.

Limitations of eSIM

Embedded SIM (eSIM) technology allows for carrier switching without the need for a physical SIM card. However, it is limited by factors such as limited carrier support and device compatibility, which can restrict user choice and global usability. The setup process for eSIMs can be complex, involving carrier-specific activation that is more complicated than traditional SIM cards. Moving an eSIM between devices is not as straightforward and often requires obtaining a new QR code from the carrier, which can be inconvenient, especially during travel or emergencies. Furthermore, the number of profiles that can be stored on a device is limited, and switching profiles may not be seamless. Security and privacy concerns also arise from the digital management of eSIMs, and users may face difficulties with eSIM removal or replacement in case of device issues, as it is integrated into the hardware. There is a clear need for wider adoption and integration of eSIM technology to enhance user convenience and flexibility.

Share This Article